oxidation of refractory minerals

Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral Ores for ...

Bioleaching has emerged as a green technology with promising applications in mining industries in the context of recovery of precious metals from mineral ores. The authors synthesize the current knowledge available in the bioleaching of gold (Au) from ores by bringing together historical developments and recent...

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Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral Ores for ...

Dec 20, 2017 ... Full-text (PDF) | Bioleaching has emerged as a green technology with promising applications in mining industries in the context of recovery of precious metals from mineral ores. The authors synthesize the current knowledge available in the bioleaching of gold (Au) from ores by bringing together hi...

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Process flow of bio-oxidation and biocyanidation of Au bearing...

See figure: 'Process flow of bio-oxidation and biocyanidation of Au bearing refractory mineral ores. ' from publication 'Bio-Oxidation and Biocyanidation of Refractory Mineral Ores for Gold Extraction: A Review' on ResearchGate, the professional network for scientists.

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Microbial oxidation of refractory gold sulfide concentrate by a native ...

O P KARTHIKEYAN, A RAJASEKAR, R. BALASUBRAMANIANBio-oxidation and bio-cyanidation of refractory mineral ores for gold extraction: A review [J]. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45 (2015), pp. 1611-1643. 22. M TANAKA, Y YAMAJI, Y FUKANO, K SHIMADA, J ISHIBASHI, T HIRAJIMA,...

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Enhancement of bio-oxidation of refractory arsenopyritic gold ore by ...

Enhancement of simultaneous gold and copper extraction from computer printed circuit boards using Bacillus megaterium [J]. Bioresource Technology, 175 (2014), pp. 315–324. [SD-008]. 5; M CLIMO, H R WATLING, W V BRONSWIJK. Biooxidation as pre-treatment for a telluride-rich refractory gold concentrate [J]. Minerals...

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Evaluation of Parameters in the Bio-Oxidation Process of Refractory ...

The mining districts located in the western mountain range in the south of Ecuador have gold minerals with refractory characteristics, which do not allow gold recovery by traditional methods used in Ecuador. Therefore, it is necessary to apply some technology that permits to obtain greater metal recovery. Bio-oxidation, as...

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Bacterial oxidation - Wikipedia

The bacterial oxidation process comprises contacting refractory sulfide ROM ore or concentrate with a strain of the bacterial culture for a suitable treatment period under an optimum operating environment. The bacteria oxidise the sulfide minerals, thus liberating the occluded gold for subsequent recovery via cyanidation.

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Pressure oxidation - Wikipedia

Pressure Oxidation is a process for extracting gold from refractory ore. The most common refractory ores are pyrite and arsenopyrite, which are sulfide ores that trap the gold within them. Refractory ores require pre-treatment before the gold can be adequately extracted. The pressure oxidation process is used to prepare...

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evaluating process options for treating some refractory ores abstract

Most refractory gold ores and sulphide concentrates require some degree of oxidation of the sulphides to liberate gold locked as 'solid solution' or as very fine inclusions in the gold bearing sulphide minerals. The amount of oxidation required to expose gold for subsequent recovery by cyanidation varies for different ores...

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Oxidation Mechanism of C in MgO–C Refractory Bricks

Apr 7, 2006 ... Materials, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9466, Iran. Kinetics of oxidation of MgO–C refractory bricks containing. 14.3% graphite, 80.9% magnesia, and 4.8% phenolic resin is investigated comprehensively. Effect of temperature and grain size distribution on the rate of oxidation of graphite is...

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Microbial oxidation of gold ores and gold bioleaching | FEMS ...

Acidophilic bacteria and their activity in mineral sulfide oxidation. In. Microbial Mineral Recovery. Ehrlich. H.L.. Brierley. C.L.. , Eds) pp. 3. –. 27. McGraw-Hill. ,. New York . 4. Hutchins. S.R.. Brierley. J.A.. Brierley. C.L.. (. 1988. ) Microbial pretreatment of refractory sulfide and carbonaceous ores improves the economics of gold...

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Gold mineral processing - Hatch

Treatment of refractory gold ore (whole ore and flotation concentrates) has become more prominent since the 1980s, with many gold discoveries often including ores that are wholly or partially refractory. Refractory pre-treatment processes include pressure oxidation, biological oxidation and various forms of roasting. Design...

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Gold recovery from sulphide minerals: a bioprocessing ... - CiteSeerX

of the gold within the associated sulfide minerals. Many approaches .... deal with refractory gold ores different modifications were tried (Whitlock ... flotation, followed by oxidation of the gold-bearing sulfides to the required extent in a multi-stage process. Oxidized solids discharged from the last reactor are separated from.

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coatings for the protection of refractory metals from oxidation

protecting refractory metals from oxidation. In preparing this report an attempt has been made to: (1) identify the major individual problems which make the over-all protection problem so complex (Z) present information and references to major sources of information on materials and methods for producing coating systems,...

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refractory metals - ASM International

In the future, available anti-oxidation coatings may allow usage of these ma- terials in oxidizing conditions. Refractory metals defined. The term “refractory metals” is gen- erally applied to metals that have melting points greater than 2000oC. (3630oF). Metals in the group are shown in Table 1. Principal materials in the group...

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A FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH TEMPERATURE ...

partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (Metallurgical and Materials. Engineering). ... For double refractory gold ores, the most crucial unit operation is performed by the roaster by ... knowledge of how particular ores behave in this oxidation step is crucial to the overall understanding of a.

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The reasons of gold refractory, Gold ore classification, and ...

Nov 28, 2016 ... They have a high solubility in the alkaline cyanide, have a large amount consumption of cyanide and dissolved oxygen in the solution, forming a variety of cyanide complex compound and SCN-,therefore, it affects the oxidation and the leaching of gold. The most important oxygen consumption minerals in...

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toni jaatinen bio-oxidation and bioleaching of arsenic - Tampereen ...

May 4, 2011 ... In this thesis, the bio-oxidation of a refractory gold flotation concentrate. (from the Agnico-Eagle, Suurikuusikko mine site, Kittilä, Finland) and the bioleaching of two nickel- and cobalt-containing flotation concentrates (from Mondo Minerals Oy. Talc Mining Site, Sotkamo) were studied. The aim was to use...

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MULCOA - Imerys Refractory Minerals - The global benchmark in ...

Refractories. The transformation of clay into mullite generates a structure that gives the product the required characteristics for refractory applications: Good creep resistance. Low thermal conductivity. Excellent thermal stability. Good thermal shock resistance. Resistance to most chemical attacks. Oxidation resistance

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Effects of salts on metal oxidation and refractory corrosion induced ...

refractory materials in the Bellyband zone. The purpose of this study is to analyze and to compare the effects of chlorides versus fluorides on both oxidation and corrosion behavior of molten aluminum alloys. Different aluminum alloys (Al-5wt.%Mg, Al-5.5wt.%Zn and the 7075 alloy), salts. (MgCl2, KCl, CaCl2, NaCl, MgF2,...

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Sleeping gold — FLSmidth Discover Mining - FLSmidth Minerals

Sep 4, 2017 ... The race is on to discover a more economically viable means of extracting gold from refractory low-grade ores. FLSmidth's Rapid Oxidative Leach (ROL) process could unlock significant value in the gold space. Gold deposits are becoming increasingly complex to treat and grades continue to deteriorate in...

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Electrooxidation as a Pretreatment Process Before Cyanidation

Feb 1, 2012 ... prior to cyanidation to treat refractory gold ores: chemical (chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorates, perchlorates, ozone, oxygen, and sulfuric acid) or electrochemical oxidation, pressure leaching, and bacterial leaching. Oxidation of carbon and sulfide minerals by sodium hypochlorite is a possible method to.

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Effect of Pretreatment of Sulfide Refractory Concentrate with Sodium ...

For extraction of gold from refractory ores or concentrate, in which gold is surrounded or covered by iron sulfide minerals, mainly arsenopyrite and pyrite, mineral oxidative pretreatment is essential to oxidize sulfides and to expose gold to the leaching solution. Pyrometallurgical oxidation by roasting is under environmental...

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Pre-treatment of a refractory gold sulfide ore by means of ...

The other methods require high pressure, high temperature and/or corrosion-resistant materials. Biological oxidation (biooxidation) as pre-treatment of refractory gold ores is based on the ability of acidophilic microorganisms to oxidize and dissolve pyrite and arsenopyrite, thus releasing the entrapped gold particles...

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Introduction to Refractories | ispatguru.com

Sep 28, 2013 ... Refractories are defined in ASTM C71 as non metallic materials having those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures or as components of systems that ... Grphite is the least reactive and is extensively used in the furnaces where the process of oxidation can be controlled.

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Oxidation Behavior and Mechanism of Al4SiC4 ... - Semantic Scholar

Jun 23, 2017 ... This work proves the great potential of Al4SiC4 in improving the MgO-C materials. Keywords: Al4SiC4; oxidation; MgO-C bricks. 1. Introduction. Magnesia-carbon (MgO-C) bricks are a kind of typical refractories, and are mainly composed of. MgO and graphite. They have been playing a vital role in the fields...

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John T. Boyd Company – Refractory Ore Specialist Consultant ...

John T. Boyd Company – Mining and Geological Consultant is a prominent international metals mining consultant providing Refractory Ore consulting services relative to Gold and other minerals to a diverse client base with locations in United States, Australia, China, Colombia. ... Pressure oxidation of flotation concentrates.

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Treatment of Refractory Gold Ores - XPS | Expert Process Solutions

key minerals, followed by cyanide leaching of the residue until all of the gold has been ... A second solution is complete pressure oxidation (POX), which is effective for all conditions except carbon, but this can be ... for the detailed metallurgical testwork required for successful refractory gold processing. While the recovery of...

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Biooxidation - BioMineWiki

May 13, 2008 ... 2) Bioleaching and biooxidation are both oxidation processes and will degrade the sulfide-metal matrix ... The most common commercial example is pre-treatment of arsenopyrite refractory gold concentrates. ... In this way, gold recovery from refractory minerals can increase from 15-30% to 85-95%.

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Mining with Microbes | Nature Biotechnology

Aug 1, 1995 ... 8. Aswegen, P.C., Godfrey, M.W., Miller, D.M. and Haines, A.K. 1991. Developments and innovations in bacterial oxidation of refractory ores . Minerals and Metallurgical Processing 8: 188–192. Show context. 9. Aswegen, P.C. and Haines, A.K. 1988. Bacteria enhance gold recovery. International Mining.

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Basic Iron Sulphate in Pressure Oxidation Processing - SGS NZ

Refractory gold concentrates often contain sub-microscopic gold that is encapsulated within the crystal matrix of iron sulphide minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. To recover the gold, the host mineral must generally be broken down chemically, by oxidative processes such as roasting, pressure oxidation or...

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pressure oxidation of pyrite-arsenopyrite refractory ... - EBSCOhost

Abstract: Refractory gold ores have poor gold recoveries with direct cyanide leaching. Typically the refractoriness is due to encapsulation of the gold particles inside the host mineral. To liberate gold for leaching the host mineral must be broken by mechanical or chemical means. The aim of this study was to study the effect...

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Alkaline Oxidative Leaching of Gold-Bearing ... - CDC stacks

Sep 5, 1989 ... Alkaline oxidative leaching of gold-bearing arsenopyrite ores / by P. Bhakta,. J. W. Langhans, Jr., and K. P. V. Lei. ..... crystal structure of the host minerals by oxidation (2). Oxidation by roasting is no longer an ... their possible applications to treat refractory gold ores (5). These processes can be classified as...

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Aluminium industry - Seven Refractories

The primary aluminium production industry extracts metallic aluminium from minerals. Afterwards aluminium is reprocessed by different factories, which use several type of furnaces for the production of aluminium products or semi-finished products. It is in these remelting stages that modern refractory products are mainly...

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Cyclic Oxidation Testing and Modelling: A NASA Lewis Perspective

The Materials Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has been heavily involved in the cyclic oxidation of high temperature materials for 30 years.

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Electrochemical Oxidation Combined with Physical–Chemical ...

An electrochemical oxidation process was adopted for the treatment of refractory landfill leachate in this study. It was found that the process was effective for the removal of COD and ammonium, but expensive energy loading was required for the individual electrochemical treatment of landfill leachate. Thus, coagulation and...

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Outotec® Pressure Oxidation Process

Outotec® Pressure Oxidation Process. Get a comprehensive solution for refractory gold sulfide oxidation from one reliable supplier. The Outotec pressure oxidation process solution offers a sustainable and economical process in a complete pressure oxidation plant with a high level of automation and process control.

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download the PDF - The University of British Columbia

2.3. Preg-robbing Ores. 8. 2.3.1 Carbonaceous Species. 9. 2.3.2 Clay Minerals. 9. 3.0. LITERATURE REVIEW. - CONVENTIONAL REFRACTORY GOLD ORE TREATMENTS. 11. 3.1. Oxidizing Pretreatments ..11. 3.1.1 Pre-aeration. 12. 3.1.2 Pressure Oxidation. 13. 3.1.3 The Redox Process. 15. 3.1.4 The Nitrox Process. 19.

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What are Refractory Metals - PickPM

metals…even for drilling oil wells and in mining. Many other qualities: From excellent radiation shields to chemical catalysts, individual refractory metals offer a wide variety of useful capabilities. ... high melting points and ease of oxidation, refractory metals are usually worked in powder form. The science of modern powder...

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Technology - PanTerra Gold Limited, Sydney Australia | An ...

The Company is focussed on the utilisation of the Albion Oxidation Process which was developed in Australia and is patented by a subsidiary of global mining group, Glencore PLC. The Albion Process is an atmospheric leaching process used to oxidise refractory gold sulphide mineral concentrates. Such sulphide minerals...

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